Jnanis have been described in a multitude of ways by the scriptures, from very dear to God to extremely foolish and unwise. the Vedanta philosophy, the Jnana Yogi uses his mind to inquire into its own nature. The space is within a vessel and that is outside it we perceive as being different. In the same way we think we are separate from God.
This is the most difficult path; It requires a strong will and tremendous intellect. Based on the Vedanta philosophy, the Jnana Yogi uses his mind to inquire into its own nature. The space is within a vessel and that is outside it we perceive as being different. In the same way we think we are separate from God. Jnana Yoga allows the devotee to break the glass and reach directly feel your oneness with God. The veils of ignorance disappear. Before you start practicing Jnana Yoga, the aspirant must have integrated what they learned in the other paths of yoga, for without selflessness and love of God, without a body and a strong mind, the search for self realization can become mere idle speculation.
Jnana yoga is the path of nondual realisation that leads to an experience of absolute truth. The word 'jnana' (pronounced 'gyan') means knowledge. This is of two kinds:
- Shabdatmak jnana -- theoretical knowledge
- Anubhavatmak jnana -- practical knowledge
For example, imagine a student who has memorized how to assemble a computer. He is familiar with the all latest peripherals, microprocessors, networking and communications options. He can even give a lecture on the subject of computing, but he has actually never used a computer. On the other hand, someone who knows less theory, but can type his homework lesson using a word processor has practical knowledge of computing.
Similarly, in the area of spirituality, you could memorize scriptural verses, and even give lectures on abstruse metaphysical topics. Practical spiritual knowledge is gained by following the path to God as established by the scriptures and receiving God's grace.
extremely foolish and unwise.
Wherever knowledge and those pursuing it have been criticized in the Hindu scriptures, it refers only to theoretical knowledge. If a person has only theoretical knowledge, and if that doesn't lead to practical knowledge of God, he will develop a false and misguiding pride about his intellectual accomplishments. This, in the end, damages his spiritual progress.
If knowledge is used correctly, it leads to devotion, and with devotion, we can attain our ultimate spiritual aim of authentic divine happiness. In fact, the practical experience of God is absolutely dependent on theoretical knowledge, because this knowledge is needed for steady progress in devotion.
Just as it is compulsory for bhakti (devotion) to be added to karma for it to become karma yoga, so it is compulsory for bhakti to be added to jnana for it to become jnana yoga. Knowledge without devotion is incapable of giving a practical experience of God.
The ultimate spiritual aim of a jnani is to realize or attain practical and experienced knowledge of the impersonal or formless aspect of God (or brahm) or absolute truth.
Practical knowledge of this aspect of God is called brahm jnana. (brahm - God, jnana - knowledge). The bliss associated brahm jnana is called 'brahm-anand' (anand - divine bliss). This realization is also referred to as absolute liberation, mukti or kaivalya moksha, because it liberates the practitioner forever from the bondage of Maya.
This is also the ultimate goal of the teachings of the Yoga Darshan of Maharishi Patanjali, which is accomplished through the perfecting all eight limbs of ashtanga yoga.
In fact, yogis and gyanis share teachings and practices from both their traditions. Through the discrimination developed through jnana of what is truth and non-truth, a yogi overcomes any confusion or pride he may develop from attaining yogic powers or siddhis and which could be a distraction to or stop his spiritual progress in jnana yoga meditation.
Without the practices of yoga meditation, a jnani can't fully establish true knowledge in his heart exclusively through intellectual discrimination.
The two main qualities of a practitioner who desires to enter path of jnana are:
- Complete renunciation
- A deep desire for absolute liberation from Maya
These processes of self-discipline and yoga practice are for establishing the non-dual experience of formless divinity (Advaita jnana), a very state of liberation that ultimately culminates only in ending one's ignorance, not in guaranteeing an eternal experience of bliss.
The final step of the path of jnana yoga, nididhyasana, is for establishing nirvikalpa samadhi, the final stage of jnana.
A jnani is unable to cross the final stages two stages of Maya on the base of his own strength or quality of spiritual practice. His spiritual development is stopped at this point, within the pure satvik quality of the mayic field.
This means that he is still under the influence of Maya and he could lose his spiritual accomplishments due to a wrong mayic association or from his own sanskars (conditioned mental reflexes of the past) that could deviate his mind towards materiality.
The Yogshikopanishad explains how much effort was involved in actually arriving at the stage of nirvikalpa samadhi:
"It takes many lifetimes of continuous practice to establish 'jnana' in the mind, the stable understanding of the illusiveness of mayic happiness and the divinity of the soul. Further, it takes hundreds of lifetimes of continuous practice of samadhi in jnana yoga to enable a yogi to receive liberation."Even after arriving at the stage of nirvikalpa samadhi, the jnani or yogi is still in danger of losing everything. Veda Vyas explains in the Bhagwatam (10/2/32):
"Diverting their minds with utmost difficulty from mayic attractions, the few yogis who reach the final stage of yoga, after crossing the five material barriers (koshas) begin to believe they have crossed the ocean of Maya completely. They are mistaken. Because of this mistake, they may be attracted to the world and fall back into the field of attachment. A yogi must know that the ocean of Maya can only be crossed with the grace of Krishna."As Krishna explains in the Bhagavad Gita (7/14),
"The bondage of My three-fold Maya (consisting of tamas, rajas and sattva) will end only when you surrender to Me."In other words, absolute liberation will not and cannot happen through jnana yoga.
The only way to attain absolute liberation is when jnana is transformed into jnana yoga. Krishna clarifies this point in the Bhagavad Gita (18/54):
"In the state of atma-jnana or self realization (called brahm-bhoot) a jnani is impartial to all. He has no material desire and experiences no pain on being separated from any material object or person, yet he has not attained divine knowledge of God (brahm jnana). Because of this he can still fall from his spiritual height."Krishna explains the atma jnani secures and perfects this knowledge only through bhakti (devotion) and grace (Gita 18/55):
"Only through bhakti to Me and with My Grace does an atma jnani know Me and attain divine realization. He attains the full knowledge of what was only partially understood."Through devotion and grace, an atma jnani becomes a brahm jnani, a realized and true knower of the impersonal aspect of divinity.
This same inner motivation inspires our spiritual journey.
The fact is there is one universal aim for all of us, regardless of belief, culture, language, gender or any of our other distinguishing factors. We are searching for happiness and happiness alone in everything that we choose to do. This is our true aim and the hidden motivation behind all actions.
You may say we are motivated to have perfect health, prosperity, good relationships, longevity, freedom, or whatever your heart desires, but these are only means of fulfilling what is your ultimate and original desire: perfect happiness.
Why do you want money? To be happy. Why do you wish to live forever? To be happy. Why do you desire knowledge? To be happy. Why are you reading this paragraph? You, too, are looking for happiness.
In the Vedic tradition, this aim is addressed in the Darshan Shastras, six schools of theistic philosophy. In Hinduism, a scripture is described as theistic if it is based on the principles of the Vedas and Upanishads.
Five of these schools (Poorva Mimansa of Jaimini, Nyaya of Gautum, Vaishaishik of Kanad, Sankhya of Kapil and Yoga of Patanjali) state that our deepest desire is freedom from suffering.
Suffering has three main forms:
- Physical and mental suffering
- Suffering inflicted upon us by others
- Suffering caused by the environment
The sixth school of philosophy, the Brahma Sutra by Ved Vyas, takes a different position. This philosophy is the most extensive and the most important of all the theistic systems. Jagadgurus and Saints have written extensive commentaries on this scripture, and they give two perspectives on its spiritual meaning.
The first perspective describes the ultimate divine reality as a nondual, impersonal, absolute existence. This is realized through jnana yoga. As you learned earlier in this section, this school of philosophy is referred to as advaita vedanta or nondualism.
The second perspective describes the ultimate divine reality is dual, meaning there are two. You and God are two, and you realize the truth of this relationship through bhakti yoga. There is you, God and the process of experiencing Him with your mind and all your senses. You can see Him, serve Him and love Him. This school of philosophy has a few variations, but in general they could be referred to as dvaita vedanta or dualism.
The original philosophy of advaita held that our ultimate aim was to attain absolute liberation from Maya, and realize and merge into the bliss of nondual divinity through jnana yoga.
The Saint philosophers who revealed dvaita took this one step further and described a realization beyond liberation and nondual bliss: the attainment of God realization and the bliss of the personal form of God.
Isn't liberation from Maya and the absence of material suffering and limitation the same as the eternal attainment of bliss? The answer is no. However, the attainment of bliss includes liberation from suffering.
Even in your own life the absence of sorrow does not equate to the presence of happiness. If someone is standing on your foot, while that pressure is being applied, you feel pain. If they remove their foot, you may refer to the relief you feel as 'happiness', but it is really just the absence of pain.
Similarly, in a spiritual sense, absolute liberation from Maya and the experience of nondual bliss is a divine accomplishment. In contrast to mayic bondage, this is unlimitedly blissful.
Amazingly, there is still a more enriched and permanent experience of divine bliss beyond this attainment related to the personal form of God.
By attaining liberation, you don't automatically receive this bliss, but by attaining God realization, not only do you receive this bliss, but you are also automatically liberated from Maya and all mayic suffering.
Next Steps: According to the reconciled teachings of the Jagadgurus and Hindu scriptures, our ultimate aim is not just be free from suffering, but to also experience perfect divine happiness. What this happiness is and how to attain it is explored in the section on What is Bhakti Yoga.